Incontinence has a much higher rate of occurrence in females than in males. Female incontinence can be a result of either congenital disorders (such as birth defects, bladder muscle weakness, or nerve disorders) or acquired disorders (due to childbirth, injury, infection, or medicinal side effects). Often, incontinence is caused by poor muscle tone, which results in less control. In these cases, the problem can typically be treated with exercise or physical therapy as well as dietary and lifestyle changes.
Incontinence may also be caused by an overactive bladder, which occurs when the muscle around the bladder contracts spastically. Overactive bladder may be treated with medication or with other treatments, including physical therapy, lifestyle and dietary changes.